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Thoughts Lead To Appreciation

ATTITUDE | African Slavemasters, African Slaves – Slavery In Nigeria: Series 7

ATTITUDE | African Slavemasters, African Slaves – Slavery In Nigeria Series: Slideshow

Appendix A

African Slaves Who Became Slave Traders

Antonio Landuji Oshodi Tapa

Dada Antonio

Ojo Akanbi

Madu

Joao de Oliveira, a former West African slave who became a top Brazilian slave estimator, shipping magnate and buyer.

Harry de Mane, whom Granville Sharp had rescued just the previous year from a ship carrying him in chains to the West Indies.

Appendix B

African Slaveholders In The United States Of America

South Carolina – 1830:

  1. Justus Angel – 84 slaves
  2. Mistress L. Horry – 84 slaves
  3. 1 in 4 free Africans – ≥10 slaves
  4. 8 free Africans – ≥30 slaves

Charleston, South Carolina – 1860:

125 Africans – ≥1 slave

6 free Africans – ≥10 slaves

South Carolina – 1860:

69 Africans – ≥1 slave

Connecticut – 1790:

48 Africans = 143 slaves

Maryland

Nat Butler, bought and sold slaves with impunity

Louisiana – 1860:

  1. 6 Africans – ≥65 slaves
  2. C. Richards and her son P.C. Richards – 152 slaves
  3. Antoine Dubuclet – ≥100 slaves
  4. Nicolas Augustin Metoyer and 12 family members = 215 slaves

New Orleans – 1860:

3,000 Africans – ≥1 slaves

Virginia – 1654:

Anthony and wife Mary Johnson ≥1 slaves

Richmond – 1863:

Gilbert Hunt – 2 slaves

Virginia – 1840:

William Ellis – 30 slaves

Virginia – 1860:

  1. William Ellis – 63 slaves
  2. His sons – 9 slaves

Haiti, formerly Saint-Dominigue

Julien Raimond – biracial

Mariquita Province, New Granada, Colombia – 1776

Felipe Delgado, sold Francisco Castañeda, a Caravali, possibly Calabar, Kalabari or Igbos.

A good number of these slaves might well have been freed persons working for a living in plantations and companies owned by African business magnates.

The dearth of written records blurs the free from the enslaved, for some might be described as slaves in official documentation to avoid scrutiny from state and federal officials.

This is analogous to the purchase of Bilal the Ethiopian by Abu Bakr in order to extricate the former from his abusive Arab masters.

More than a decade afterwards, we understand Bilal was free from the point of purchase by Abu Bakr because of this conversation.

If you purchased me for yourself, then keep me. However, if you freed me for Allah, leave me to serve my Rabb.

Purchase or supposed ownership of persons is not the best indicator of the purpose of action or status of the object. Better assessors of chattel slavery are restrictions on the purchased and sale of the purchased. The latter, in essence, gauges the relationship between owner and slave.

Nevertheless, William Ellison was a slave-owner, for he fit the criteria earlier listed – restriction on and sale of slaves. He, even, sold his own daughter by a slave woman. Plus, he ensured runaway slaves of his were recaptured. Worse, he tortured his slaves, chained inside a windowless cabin.

His family, as did hundreds of other Africans, financed the Confederates – who were pro-slavery – during American Civil War.

Appendix C

African Abolitionists Across The World

Haiti, formerly, Saint-Dominigue:

General Alexandre Dumas, [1762-1806], [= Alexandre Thomas Davy de la Pailleterie]

General Toussaint L’Ouverture [1743-1803], [= François Dominique Toussaint]

Jeanne Odo

Jean-Baptiste Belley

Jean- Baptiste Mills

Jean-Jacques Dessalines [1758-1806]

Henri Christophe [1767-1820]

Jamaica:

James Mursell Phillippo

Barbados:

Bussa

Cuba:

José Antonio Aponte

Brazil

Yoruba Revolts

1822

Claudino de Jesus

Luiz Benguela

1826

Jose da Silva Barros

Jose’s wife

Others:

Antonio

Zeferina

Alexandria Joaquina da Conceicao

1835 Muslim Revolution:

Vitório Sule

Shaykh Dandará of Tambawal [= Elesbão do Carmo],

Shaykh Luís Sanim, Nupe

Malam Bubakar Ahuna, Yoruba

Malam Bilal Pacífico Lucatan ~Licutan, Yoruba

[= Imam Pacífico Lucatan or Malam Bilal]

Imam Manuel Calafate, Yoruba

Silvestre Jose Antonio, Hausa-Fulani

Antonio, Hausa-Fulani or associated ethnicity

Nicobe Sule, Yoruba [= Malam Sulaiman]; possibly same person as Vitório Sule

Jorge da Cruz Barboza,

Jose Francisco Goncalves,

Thomas,

Gaspar da Silva Cunha, Yoruba

Dassala,

Amaro Ba,

Ajadi Luis Duples,

Jaime,

Joao

Joaquim

Aprigio,

Jose, Kanuri

1807 Muslim Hausa-Fulani Revolution:

Tiburcio,

Guilherme,

Andre,

Jose,

Luiz,

Faustino,

Alexandre,

Simplicio,

Francisco,

Cosme,

Ignacio,

Antonio

Balthazar

12 of the above were Hausa-Fulani or of associated ethnicities.

Other Muslims In Revolts:

Cornelio, Yoruba

Antonio Bomcaminho, Nupe

The roles of women in slave revolts of Bahia deserve commendation.

For instance, in 1809, up to 39 women were penalised for participation in that year’s Muslim uprising of various ethnicities.

Senegal:

Ayuba Suleiman Diallo [1702-c. 1773]

Abdel Kader Kane

Italy:

Al-Hasan Ibn Muhammad Al-Wazzan Az-Zayyati or Al-Fasi [1485-1554], [= Leo Africanus; Giovanni Leone (John Leo)]

United States Of America:

Calabar

Eboe Sarah

Juba

Breechy

Nat Turner [1800-1831]

Charles Deslondes

Denmark Vesey [c. 1767-1822]

Frederick Douglass [c. 1818-1895], [= Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey]

Sojourner Truth [c. 1797-1883], [= Isabella Van Wagener]

William Wells Brown [c. 1814-1884].

Phillis Wheatley [c. 1753-1784]

Mary Prince [1788-1833]

Harriet Tubman [1820-1913], [= Araminta Ross]

United Kingdom

Olaudah Equiano [c. 1745-1797], [= Gustavus Vassa]

Ottobah Cugoano [c. 1757-after 1791]

Ignatius Sancho (c. 1729-1780]

Igbo/ Ibom Women Runaway Slaves In

South Carolina:

Dinah, spoke excellent English, escaped with her husband – September 1747

Lydia, 19 years old, accompanied a male in the escape – March 1748

Linda, fled slavery with her family: husband and minor child and managed to remain safe for at least 12 months afterwards

Amoretta – August 1765

Phillis, fair-skinned and had a great grasp of spoken English – August 1768

Sue, 25 years old – September 1769

Becky, had a good grasp of oral English – December 1769

Affey, of Calabar, tall and ebony-complexioned escaped for at least 12 months with her family: husband and minor child – February 1770

Banaba, a light-complexioned expert fashion designer – August 1773

Phebe, escaped with her fugitive spouse – June 1777

Old Rose, an ebony-skinned woman who organised a mass escape escaped with her adult children Celia, 36 years old, Country Sue, Celia’s 6 year-old daughter Elsey; women of other African origin were Kate of Angola and Town Sue; others were her 22 year-old son Dick and Celia’s husband – January 1781

X of New Orleans, was multi-lingual and spoke English and French – October 1806

Babb of New Orleans, aged 30+ spoke good French – January 1809

Suzanne, who refused to state the name of her slavemaster

Tenah, 19 years old – July 1782

attitude-middle-passage-on-slave-ships

Appendix D

Jewish Slavers Of Africans

Suriname – 1694: 570 Jewish residents and they owned a total of 9,000 slaves between them.

North America And Caribbean – 1707: Ten [10] of the most prolific Jewish buyers of slaves spent a quarter of the total expended.

Some major Jewish slave merchants:

1750s – Charleston: Isaac Da Costa

1760 – Philadelphia: David Franks

1760s – Newport: Aaron Lopez

Slave sales were rescheduled if the day was a Jewish occasion.

Name Of Slave Ships And Their Owners

The Abigail-Caracoa – Aaron Lopez, Moses Levy, Jacob Crown Isaac Levy and Nathan Simpson

The Nassau – Moses Levy

The Four Sisters – Moses Levy

The Anne & The Eliza – Justus Bosch and John Abrams

The Prudent Betty – Henry Cruger and Jacob Phoenix

The Hester – Mordecai and David Gomez

The Elizabeth – Mordecai and David Gomez

The Antigua – Nathan Marston and Abram Lyell

The Betsy – Wm. De Woolf

The Polly – James De Woolf

The White Horse – Jan De Sweevts

The Expedition – John and Jacob Roosevelt

The Charlotte – Moses and Sam Levy and Jacob Franks

The Franks – Moses and Sam Levy

Final Word

They sold us for money, and I myself was sold six times over, sometimes for money, sometimes for a gun, sometimes for cloth. It was about half a year from the time I was taken before I saw white people.

~>Anonymous, 1831

~~~~

ATTITUDE | African Slavemasters, African Slaves – Slavery In Nigeria Series:

[Series 1] [Series 2] [Series 3] [Series 4] [Series 5] [Series 6] [Series 7]

 

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7 comments on “ATTITUDE | African Slavemasters, African Slaves – Slavery In Nigeria: Series 7

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  7. Sidney Davis
    July 3, 2017

    There are some Igbos who believe they are descendant of Jews. Some tout that their paternal DNA show indications of Jewish or Middle East ancestry which they are quite proud of. However likely or unlikely this may be, this could be possible since Jewish slave traders likely abused our women.

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