Thoughts Lead To Appreciation
ATTITUDE | African Slavemasters, African Slaves – Slavery In Nigeria Series: Slideshow
African Slaves Who Became Slave Traders
Antonio Landuji Oshodi Tapa
Joao de Oliveira, a former West African slave who became a top Brazilian slave estimator, shipping magnate and buyer.
Harry de Mane, whom Granville Sharp had rescued just the previous year from a ship carrying him in chains to the West Indies.
African Slaveholders In The United States Of America
South Carolina – 1830:
Charleston, South Carolina – 1860:
125 Africans – ≥1 slave
6 free Africans – ≥10 slaves
South Carolina – 1860:
69 Africans – ≥1 slave
Connecticut – 1790:
48 Africans = 143 slaves
Nat Butler, bought and sold slaves with impunity
Louisiana – 1860:
New Orleans – 1860:
3,000 Africans – ≥1 slaves
Virginia – 1654:
Anthony and wife Mary Johnson ≥1 slaves
Richmond – 1863:
Gilbert Hunt – 2 slaves
Virginia – 1840:
William Ellis – 30 slaves
Virginia – 1860:
Haiti, formerly Saint-Dominigue
Julien Raimond – biracial
Mariquita Province, New Granada, Colombia – 1776
Felipe Delgado, sold Francisco Castañeda, a Caravali, possibly Calabar, Kalabari or Igbos.
A good number of these slaves might well have been freed persons working for a living in plantations and companies owned by African business magnates.
The dearth of written records blurs the free from the enslaved, for some might be described as slaves in official documentation to avoid scrutiny from state and federal officials.
This is analogous to the purchase of Bilal the Ethiopian by Abu Bakr in order to extricate the former from his abusive Arab masters.
More than a decade afterwards, we understand Bilal was free from the point of purchase by Abu Bakr because of this conversation.
If you purchased me for yourself, then keep me. However, if you freed me for Allah, leave me to serve my Rabb.
Purchase or supposed ownership of persons is not the best indicator of the purpose of action or status of the object. Better assessors of chattel slavery are restrictions on the purchased and sale of the purchased. The latter, in essence, gauges the relationship between owner and slave.
Nevertheless, William Ellison was a slave-owner, for he fit the criteria earlier listed – restriction on and sale of slaves. He, even, sold his own daughter by a slave woman. Plus, he ensured runaway slaves of his were recaptured. Worse, he tortured his slaves, chained inside a windowless cabin.
His family, as did hundreds of other Africans, financed the Confederates – who were pro-slavery – during American Civil War.
African Abolitionists Across The World
Haiti, formerly, Saint-Dominigue:
General Alexandre Dumas, [1762-1806], [= Alexandre Thomas Davy de la Pailleterie]
General Toussaint L’Ouverture [1743-1803], [= François Dominique Toussaint]
Jean- Baptiste Mills
Jean-Jacques Dessalines [1758-1806]
Henri Christophe [1767-1820]
James Mursell Phillippo
José Antonio Aponte
Claudino de Jesus
Jose da Silva Barros
Alexandria Joaquina da Conceicao
1835 Muslim Revolution:
Shaykh Dandará of Tambawal [= Elesbão do Carmo],
Shaykh Luís Sanim, Nupe
Malam Bubakar Ahuna, Yoruba
Malam Bilal Pacífico Lucatan ~Licutan, Yoruba
[= Imam Pacífico Lucatan or Malam Bilal]
Imam Manuel Calafate, Yoruba
Silvestre Jose Antonio, Hausa-Fulani
Antonio, Hausa-Fulani or associated ethnicity
Nicobe Sule, Yoruba [= Malam Sulaiman]; possibly same person as Vitório Sule
Jorge da Cruz Barboza,
Jose Francisco Goncalves,
Gaspar da Silva Cunha, Yoruba
Ajadi Luis Duples,
1807 Muslim Hausa-Fulani Revolution:
12 of the above were Hausa-Fulani or of associated ethnicities.
Other Muslims In Revolts:
Antonio Bomcaminho, Nupe
The roles of women in slave revolts of Bahia deserve commendation.
For instance, in 1809, up to 39 women were penalised for participation in that year’s Muslim uprising of various ethnicities.
Ayuba Suleiman Diallo [1702-c. 1773]
Abdel Kader Kane
Al-Hasan Ibn Muhammad Al-Wazzan Az-Zayyati or Al-Fasi [1485-1554], [= Leo Africanus; Giovanni Leone (John Leo)]
United States Of America:
Nat Turner [1800-1831]
Denmark Vesey [c. 1767-1822]
Frederick Douglass [c. 1818-1895], [= Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey]
Sojourner Truth [c. 1797-1883], [= Isabella Van Wagener]
William Wells Brown [c. 1814-1884].
Phillis Wheatley [c. 1753-1784]
Mary Prince [1788-1833]
Harriet Tubman [1820-1913], [= Araminta Ross]
Olaudah Equiano [c. 1745-1797], [= Gustavus Vassa]
Ottobah Cugoano [c. 1757-after 1791]
Ignatius Sancho (c. 1729-1780]
Igbo/ Ibom Women Runaway Slaves In
Dinah, spoke excellent English, escaped with her husband – September 1747
Lydia, 19 years old, accompanied a male in the escape – March 1748
Linda, fled slavery with her family: husband and minor child and managed to remain safe for at least 12 months afterwards
Amoretta – August 1765
Phillis, fair-skinned and had a great grasp of spoken English – August 1768
Sue, 25 years old – September 1769
Becky, had a good grasp of oral English – December 1769
Affey, of Calabar, tall and ebony-complexioned escaped for at least 12 months with her family: husband and minor child – February 1770
Banaba, a light-complexioned expert fashion designer – August 1773
Phebe, escaped with her fugitive spouse – June 1777
Old Rose, an ebony-skinned woman who organised a mass escape escaped with her adult children Celia, 36 years old, Country Sue, Celia’s 6 year-old daughter Elsey; women of other African origin were Kate of Angola and Town Sue; others were her 22 year-old son Dick and Celia’s husband – January 1781
X of New Orleans, was multi-lingual and spoke English and French – October 1806
Babb of New Orleans, aged 30+ spoke good French – January 1809
Suzanne, who refused to state the name of her slavemaster
Tenah, 19 years old – July 1782
Jewish Slavers Of Africans
Suriname – 1694: 570 Jewish residents and they owned a total of 9,000 slaves between them.
North America And Caribbean – 1707: Ten  of the most prolific Jewish buyers of slaves spent a quarter of the total expended.
Some major Jewish slave merchants:
1750s – Charleston: Isaac Da Costa
1760 – Philadelphia: David Franks
1760s – Newport: Aaron Lopez
Slave sales were rescheduled if the day was a Jewish occasion.
Name Of Slave Ships And Their Owners
The Abigail-Caracoa – Aaron Lopez, Moses Levy, Jacob Crown Isaac Levy and Nathan Simpson
The Nassau – Moses Levy
The Four Sisters – Moses Levy
The Anne & The Eliza – Justus Bosch and John Abrams
The Prudent Betty – Henry Cruger and Jacob Phoenix
The Hester – Mordecai and David Gomez
The Elizabeth – Mordecai and David Gomez
The Antigua – Nathan Marston and Abram Lyell
The Betsy – Wm. De Woolf
The Polly – James De Woolf
The White Horse – Jan De Sweevts
The Expedition – John and Jacob Roosevelt
The Charlotte – Moses and Sam Levy and Jacob Franks
The Franks – Moses and Sam Levy
They sold us for money, and I myself was sold six times over, sometimes for money, sometimes for a gun, sometimes for cloth. It was about half a year from the time I was taken before I saw white people.
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